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What data was collected through the Integra Initiative?

The Integra Initiative was the largest ever evaluation of different models of HIV and SRH integration and used a ‘programme science’ approach by embedding the research and data collection within the day-to-day activities of 42 Ministry of Health and IPPF health facilities in Kenya and Swaziland. Quantitative data were collected from health care facilities and communities in Malawi, Swaziland and Kenya. Qualitative research was conducted to complement the quantitative component and to enhance understanding of client needs and perspectives of health care services.

In Kenya and Swaziland data was collected between 2009 and 2012 and included the following data collection methods:

  • Community health surveys beginning with a baseline survey of 2588 participants in 2009 and 3037 participants in an endline survey in 2012.
  • Costing studies in 42 clinics in Kenya and Swaziland, using baseline and endline studies between 2009 and 2012 to assess the costs of different components of service provision, and the determinants of variations in unit costs across facilities/ service models.
  • Health facility assessments in 42 clinics in Kenya and Swaziland to track changes in quality of care and utilization over time.
  • Client flow analysis at six time points (Kenya) and four time points (Swaziland)
  • Cohort studies of family planning/postnatal clients to assess the effect of integration on individual outcomes, including use of SRH services, HIV status (known/unknown) and pregnancy (planned/unintended).
  • Individual interviews within a cohort of women living with HIV.


In Malawi a discrete choice experiment was conducted with 920 young people to assess preferences for SRH and HIV services.

For more information about the research team, click here.